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Short Circuit Studies, Fault Calculations


Short circuit calculations provide currents and voltages on a power system during fault conditions. This information is required to design an adequate protective relaying system and to determine interrupting requirements for circuit breakers at each switching location. Fault conditions can be balanced or un-balanced shunt faults or series (open conductor) faults. Often information about contributions to a fault from rotating machines such synchronous machines, large motors would be required as a function of time to determine making and breaking requirements. Fault calculations may consider or ignore pre-fault power flow conditions. Short Circuit is the PowerApps analysis module dedicated to simulating fault conditions in three-phase electric power systems. User friendly data entry, a multitude of reports and flexibility in applying all industry-accepted standards are features that make it an Indispensable tool for these very common and important system studies. PowerApps Short Circuit Module adheres to North American ANSI C37.5, ANSI C37.010, ANSI C37.13 and International IEC-60909 guidelines. It also supports conventional short-circuit studies without reference to any particular standards.

Short circuit studies provide post fault bus voltages at different busbars in the network for a fault at any one of the location in the network. These results are typically given as fault MVA’s, fault currents in kA at different bus bars  and fault contributions from adjacent bus sections to the fault, on a single line diagram for various operating conditions. Short circuit studies for minimum fault level condition at the main switch board may be of interest in relay coordination to check, whether relays can distinguish between the maximum load currents and minimum fault currents. In the event, the minimum fault currents in the relays are very close to the maximum load currents, it may be necessary to suggest voltage restraint for relays to ensure that the relays will operate only for fault conditions and not for healthy full load conditions.

The deliverables from the short circuit studies will include the following

-          Tabular report of conventional short circuit levels at all buses

-          Tabular reports of Making/Breaking Current levels at all the buses

-          Report on single line diagrams showing fault levels, fault kA for both conventional and IEC 60909 type calculations

-          Recommendations with respect to operating strategy, to limit short circuit levels where needed


General Features of Short Circuit Study/Calculation Software


Sample IEC909 Fault Decrement Curves, showing peak, RMS and DC


Related Links
Comparison Document for Short Circuit
ValidationDocument_ShortCircuitCalculations
 http://www.powerapps.org/Power System Protection Studies and Relay Coordination.aspx
Equivalent Generator Representation for Power System Analysis

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